Cocoa mirid attractiveness by different colour of trap

Cocoa mirids, Sahlbergella singularis and Distantiella theobroma, are the most economically important insect pests of cocoa in West and Central Africa, where they can cause up to 40% losses in cocoa yields. Sahlbergella singularis is the most common species in Cameroon and was therefore targeted in this study. During a two-year trial in 15 cocoa plantations in Ayos and Konye, in the Centre and Southwest regions of Cameroon respectively, the most effective colour – white, purple or green – of sex pheromone traps was examined for integration into mirid management programmes. Similar temporal patterns in S. sahlbergella male trap catches were observed with all three colours, but the green trap caught more S. singularis (Ayos: 0.968 ± 0.091 [SEM]; Konye: 0.640 ± 0.076/trap/month) compared with purple traps (Ayos: 0.674 ± 0.068; Konye: 0.441 ± 0.058), and white traps (Ayos: 0.467 ± 0.049, Konye: 0.253 ± 0.041). Trap reflectance showed wavelength peaks typical for purple in both short (approximately 380–480 nm) and long wavelengths (>650 nm), and ~530 nm for green. Reflectance peaks exceeded 100% of the incident light in the 400–450 nm range from the white, suggesting the presence of optical brighteners. Trap catches support the hypothesis that S. singularis ocelli are more responsive to light of shorter wavelengths. Despite the low attractiveness of the sex pheromone to S. singularis, a optimisation of the colour of the trap can improve S. sahlbergella monitoring, mass trapping, and other control measures which could ultimately lead to reductions of insecticide use and to conservation of beneficial arthropods, particularly cocoa flower pollinators that are critical for improving cacao tree productivity.


Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
Creator Mahot, Hermine
Creator Affiliation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Creator ID Type ORCID
Creator ID 0000-0003-1005-1111
Subject Vocab (AGROVOC/GACS/CAB) Cocoa,Mirids,Spectral analysis,Insects,Pests,Diseases,Hemiptera,Altitude,Sex pheromones,Sahlbergella
Subject(s) Cocoa,Trap color,Cocoa mirids,Sahlbergella singularis,Distantiella theobroma
Publisher International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor Person Joseph R. Mahob, David R. Hall, Sarah E.J. Arnold, Apollin K. Fotso, Gertrude Membang, Nathalie Ewane, Adolph Kemga, Komi K.M. Fiaboe, Charles F.B. Bilong, Rachid Hanna
Contributor Role Other
Contributor Project Lead Organisation Center International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor Project Lead Center International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor CRP CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics(Humidtropics)
Contributor Partner University of Greenwich, University of Yaoundé, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Centre d'innovation verte pour le secteur agroalimentaire
Contributor Donor Dutch Development Organization (SNV), German Corporation for International Cooperation GmbH (GIZ), CGIAR CRP Humidtropics
Contributor Project Un seul monde sans faim
Project ID
Contributor Affiliation University of Greenwich, University of Yaoundé, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD)
Open-Access status Open Access
Production Date 2016-12-07
Embargo End Date
Content Type Dataset
File Format csv
Identifier Type DOI
Identifier Citation Visual cues from different trap colours affect catches of Sahlbergella singularis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in sex pheromone traps in Cameroon cocoa plantations, Mahot, H.C., Mahob, J. R.*, Hall, D. R., Alnold, S. E., Fotso Kuate, A., Membang, G., Ewane-Nonga, N., Kemga, A., Fiaboe, K., Bilong-Bilong, C. F.* and Hanna, R., in: Crop Protection, volume 127, pages 1-7, ISSN 0261-2194, 2020.
Source Un seul monde sans faim
Language English
Relation Not applicable
Agroecological Zone Humid warm tropics
Coverage Region Sub-Saharan Africa
Coverage country Cameroon
Coverage Admin Unit Not applicable
Coverage Y (Latitude) 3.90566, 4.92229
Coverage X (Longitude) 12.52693, 9.46469
Coverage Start Date 2014-02-16
Coverage End Date 2016-12-07
Contact Mahot, Hermine; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contact Email,
Restriction CC-BY 4.0
Email Permission None
Rights CC-BY 4.0