Gains in Grain Yield of Extra-early Maize during Three Breeding Periods under Drought and Rain-fed Conditions

Drought is a key maize (Zea mays L.) production constraint in sub-Saharan Africa. Fourteen, fifteen, and twenty-five extra-early maturing maize cultivars, with varying Striga resistance and drought and low soil N tolerance, were developed from 1995 to 2000 (Period 1), 2001 to 2006 (Period 2), and 2007 to 2012 (Period 3), respectively. The objectives of this study were to examine yield gains in the cultivars and to investigate inter-trait relationships and yield stability under six drought and 17 rainfed conditions in West Africa from 2013 to 2016. Annual rate of yield increase across cultivars was 0.034 (3.28%) and 0.068 Mg ha−1 (2.25%), whereas yield gains per period were 0.17 and 0.38 Mg ha−1 under drought and rainfed environments, respectively. Yield gains under drought and rainfed environments were related to prolonged flowering period, increased plant and ear heights, improved stalk lodging, and ear and plant aspects, whereas delayed leaf senescence and increased number of ears per plant accompanied yield improvement under drought only. Ear aspect and number of ears per plant were primary contributors to yield and could be used as selection criteria for yield enhancement under drought and rainfed conditions. High-yielding and stable cultivars across all environments based on additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) biplot included ‘2004 TZEE-Y Pop STR C4’ and ‘TZEE-W Pop STR BC2 C0’ of Period 2 and ‘2009 TZEE-W STR’, ‘TZEE-Y STR 106’, ‘TZEE-W STR 107’, and ‘TZEE-W DT C0 STR C5’ of Period 3. These cultivars could be commercialized to improve food self-sufficiency in sub-Saharan Africa.


Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
Creator Badu-Apraku, Baffour
Creator Affiliation
Creator ID Type ORCID
Creator ID 0000-0003-0113-5487
Subject Vocab (AGROVOC/GACS/CAB) Maize,Yield,Yellow,Striga,Drought
Subject(s) Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa,Maize
Publisher International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor Person R. Asiedu, Talabi O.A., Ifie B. E., Obeng-Bio E., Chabi Y.C., Obeng-Antwi K., Haruna A.
Contributor Role
Contributor Project Lead Organisation Center International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor Project Lead Center International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor CRP CGIAR Research Program on Maize
Contributor Partner Not Applicable
Contributor Donor Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
Contributor Project Not Applicable
Project ID
Contributor Affiliation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Open-Access status Open Access
Production Date 2018-07-04
Embargo End Date
Content Type Dataset
File Format csv
Identifier Type DOI
Identifier Citation Gains in grain yield of extra-early maize during three breeding periods under drought and rain-fed conditions, Badu-Apraku, B., Talabi, A. O., Ifie, B. E., Chabi, Y.*, Obeng-Antwi, K., Haruna, A.* and Asiedu, R., in: Crop Science, pages 1-39, ISSN 0011-183X, 2018.
Source Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa
Language English
Relation Not Applicable
Agroecological Zone Semihumid warm tropics
Coverage Region Western Africa
Coverage country Nigeria,Ghana
Coverage Admin Unit Not Applicable
Coverage Y (Latitude) 9.08200, 7.94653
Coverage X (Longitude) 8.67528, -1.02319
Coverage Start Date 2013
Coverage End Date 2016
Contact Badu-Apraku, Baffour; Maize Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contact Email
Restriction Not Applicable
Email Permission None
Rights CC-BY 4.0