Household Survey data in major soybean growing districts in Malawi – 2016/17

It is widely recognized that female farmers have considerably less access to productive assets and support services than male farmers. There is limited evidence of gender gaps in technology adoption and agricultural productivity after accounting for the differential access to factors of production between males and females. This study investigates the gender differences in the adoption of improved technologies and agricultural productivity in Malawi using nationally representative data collected from 1600 households and 5238 plots. We used a multivariate probit model to analyze the gender differences in the adoption of improved technologies, including intercropping, use of improved varieties, crop rotation and residue retention, manure use, and minimum tillage. To analyze gender differences in agricultural productivity, we used an exogenous switching regression (ESR) model and re-centered influence function decomposition. We found that female plot managers were more likely to adopt intercropping and minimum tillage but less likely to adopt crop rotation and use improved varieties than male plot managers. The ESR model estimation results showed that female-managed plots were 14.6–23.1% less productive than male- managed plots. The gender productivity gaps also indicated that female plot managers had an 8.2% endowment advantage but a 23.1% structural disadvantage than male plot managers. The importance of structural effects in accounting for the gender productivity gap highlights the need for policies and agricultural development programs that consider the underlying factors shaping gender productivity gaps rather than focusing solely on agricultural production factors.

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Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
Creator Tufa, Adane
Creator Affiliation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Creator ID Type ORCID
Creator ID 0000-0001-9801-6526
Subject Vocab (AGROVOC/GACS/CAB) Gender,Productivity,Technology,Malawi,Groundnuts,Soybeans,Tobacco,Income,Assets,Fertilizers,Labour,Education,Age,Poverty reduction
Subject(s) Endogenous switching regression,Counterfactual
Publisher International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor Person Arega Alene, Steven M. Cole, Julius Manda, Shiferaw Feleke, Tahirou Abdoulaye, David Chikoye, Victor Manyong
Contributor Role Hosting Institution
Contributor Project Lead Organisation Center International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor Project Lead Center International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contributor CRP CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes and Dryland Cereals
Contributor Partner Not applicable
Contributor Donor United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Contributor Project Making high quality soybean seeds accessible to smallholder farmers in Malawi
Project ID PJ-002044
Contributor Affiliation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Open-Access status Open Access
Production Date 2019-06-30
Embargo End Date
Content Type Dataset
File Format csv
Identifier Type DOI
Identifier https://doi.org/10.25502/cdgr-3p50/d
Identifier Citation Gender differences in agricultural technology adoption and crop productivity: Evidence from Malawi, Adane Hirpa Tufa, Arega Alene, Steven M. Cole, Julius Manda, Shiferaw Feleke, Tahirou Abdoulaye, David Chikoye, and Victor Manyong, in: World Development, volume 159, pages 1-15, ISSN 0305-750X, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2022.106027
Source Making high quality soybean seeds accessible to smallholder farmers in Malawi
Language English
Relation Not applicable
Agroecological Zone Semiarid warm tropics
Coverage Region Southern Africa
Coverage country Malawi
Coverage Admin Unit Not applicable
Coverage Y (Latitude) -13.26872
Coverage X (Longitude) 33.9302
Coverage Start Date
Coverage End Date
Contact Tufa, Adane; Agricultural Economist; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
Contact Email a.tufa@cgiar.org
Restriction CC-BY 4.0
Email Permission None
Rights CC-BY 4.0